Emergency & Disaster, Event Management Planning.
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This article is aimed at those who want to arrange a huge event, and need some more than just the basic info on how to and what to do… This article will serve as a practical guide, for those who will concern themselves more with the security, emergency and disaster management aspects of any event.
I have found that by only following a textbook formula one can’t ensure continued safety, and readiness, at any type of event and for a simple reason: in any dynamic situation, performance is fundamentally relative, and becomes absolute at the point where we have no competition. Then, we dance to our own tune, and at our own pace. What am I getting at? With events you have one of every discipline, and each stick to its own. No two entities compete directly, and therefore they don’t have to perform at their peak. In fact, lasting performance of exceptional quality is largely a mental picture, a perception; a statistical anomaly. The simple fact is that no formula can guarantee continued sustainable performance, at least not in a competitive business environment where everything has a life cycle.
So, when you hire a security company, by referral, and they come highly recommended, don’t rest on your laurels either, and just assume they will perform same or better that what was expected. Things change fast; key people resign, owners sell companies, or they just get cheaper labour, or less qualified, especially when their popularity grow, and they become over stretched by the demand. This applies to all your potential service providers, especially in the events industry, those that you will be dealing with during any event need some credit. Credentials are a must then, and referrals say something more, specifically the latest, they say in this industry you are only as good as your very last performance…and it stays true.
The belief that strategic choices only made in the boardroom will directly affect the quality of a business concept, especially at grassroots level, and then the world if it is properly implemented. Where its success equates directly to the results of great planning, especially project or either strategic, is totally flawed. Any plan is only as good as the first few minutes it was written in, and then immediately implemented.
As more and more time lapse, between the conception and implementation time frames, then naturally, the more time you put between planning and execution, the more the variables change, and keep changing. Thus, planning never the less remains an indispensible part of any great endeavor, and an ongoing effort, either way it remains indispensable. The results of planning will only be reflecting the degree of precision and good decision making, and then only how effective it was executed under conditions of ambiguity that tends to change the shape of things in the heat of battle, at the instance where we go over to action, and execution, it is only then that we really see the true factors that impact on our plan, those things just outside our control, only when we hit the ground running, do we feel what we are running on, the grass, or stones for the first time. Change and influences ( both internal as well as external) will always, certainly, be the factors we cannot gauge with perfect certainty, if one thing changes, then everything normally follows on, and then it tends to change the overall plans perspective.
Strategic event management; is described as organised chaos in motion; choice is inevitably an exercise in decision making under conditions of uncertainty, of which the objective is not to find workable solutions only, and to guaranteed success, but rather to improve the odds of making it all the way without serious incidents, accidents, emergencies, and disasters, through a thoughtful consideration of factors and influences that could mitigate them, or render then nun and void. Strategic event management and planning, should never just be focused on gain, and rewards, the big compensation. Where event management companies focus only on reward, and rewarding executives for being lucky, and getting an event done, and pulling it off, without having had a fraction of what the law, requires, and otherwise stipulated, then as we all know somehow luck tends to run out at the most crucial point. The people die… Then only do we see the true value and necessity for security, emergency and disaster management and mitigation strategies. We need something different added to our strategic focus, especially where people in large numbers are concerned. Then we need a structure, some STANDARD OPPERATING PROCEDURES, for all to see, and follow during EVENTS.
Many countries have legislation in place, however more still doesn’t, that cover events from cradle to grave. Still, even with legislative compliance in place, you can never be sure that every event will comply 100%, and the first place they cut corners is on safety, security, and disaster mitigation. It is still just a bare minimum standard of security. The very uniqueness and nature of events makes it very unpredictable, even at the best of times. The problem with this is, we deal with people, and aspects like liquor use, drugs, guns, crime, political issues, could be the catalyst for something better and bigger to follow. The other aspects are unseen; adverse weather, exposed electricity, structural failures, fire, arson, gas explosions, lightning, flood water, sinkholes, etc…
Therefore, we need to opt for self organisation and true professionalism…when planning and designing major events…
Firstly we need to familiarise ourselves with the industry and their acronyms.
SOP: The Standard operating procedure serves as a uniform tool, to co-ordinate multilateral aspects of a project, to guide the respective role-players in terms of their specific key performance areas, and in terms of legislative and other criteria. Disciplines can function independently to achieve one goal, in an orderly and systematic manner. It serves as a road map, with predetermined goals and deliverables. In simple terms, it is the basic instruction sets that match, and complement each other when eventually combined, to form a Business Plan, SOP, or Strategic Plan etc.
By Definition, it is the fundamental written instruction sets, which dictate multilateral action between role players in the event of a catastrophe, anomaly of nature or an event that will cause chaos or civil unrest. The focus is on role and function designation, to reduce the reaction time and create efficiency with synergised sets of instructions, for each category of event complimenting each other
»A Standard Operational procedure is the fundamental written instruction sets, which dictate multilateral action between all role players »
JUST a word or two on the most import aspect event planning. The importance of “self” organization, by being organized you can help by not becoming the problem or even worse creating it, by: Putting first things first: First things first
“JOC”: Joint Operations Committee – Task, to coordinate all major happenings of the VOC’s – Manned by, key personnel, decision makers, and support services
“VOC’s”: Venue Operations centres – Task to co-ordinate specifics of the venue, catering, transportation, media and any other role or function. – Staffed, by operational supervisors.
“Disaster”: means a progressive or sudden, widespread or localised,
Natural or human-caused occurrence which-
(a) Causes or threatens to cause-
(i) Death, injury or disease;
(ii) Damage to property, infrastructure or the environment; or
(iii) Disruption of the life of a community; and
(b) is of a magnitude that exceeds the ability of those affected by the
Disaster to cope with its effects using only their own resources;
“Disaster management”: means a continuous and integrated multi-sectoral,
Multi-disciplinary process of planning and implementation of measures aimed at-
(a) Preventing or reducing the risk of disasters;
(b) Mitigating the severity or consequences of disasters;
(e) Emergency preparedness;
(d) a rapid and effective response to disasters; and
(e) Post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation;
“Island site”: a venue that is protected with its own contingent of command and control.
“Staging Area”: a demarcated area for emergency vehicles and personnel to assemble
“The Core Command Group” a group tasked with all the functions and responsibilities of setting up the JOC/VOC and the compilation of the Emergency and Disaster plan
“Accreditation desk”: the area where guests get their accreditation done
“Adjudication room” an area where technical and logistical differences and operational problems get reported and solved, all paperwork, MOU’s, policies, SOP’s, copies of contracts, get stored here.
“EDMP”: Emergency and Disaster Management Plan
Legal compliance, we need to look at the relevant legislation; in SOUTH AFRICA for instance we have the following acts;
Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act, 1996
Disaster Management Act, 2002
National Key Points Act, 1980
Protection of Information Act, 1982 83
Civil Protection Act, 1977
The Regulation of Gatherings Act, 1993
Films and Publications Act 1996
The Riotous Assemblies Act, 1956
The Security Officers Act, 1987
National Road Traffic Act, 1996
-To be updated…
How do we start, and where do we start?
See if the venue you have in mind have any set criteria to work from, and ask them if they can assist; either or, it is always a good idea to then dig into the venues histological background, they might have had many events, and know the place and what it can and cant cope with, what works and what doesn’t, and its internal issues best.
Then furthermore to this, visit the city council in whose area the venue is vested, they might have a standardized criteria for this specific venue alternatively. The department that traditionally deal with council, and local government venues, are their sports arts and cultures, departments, as well the local Police station, then the Metro Police, and then City Hall, the Fire-brigade, or the city Council. Someone somewhere will have one policy, or would have something compiled, and you can just follow their criteria that need to be complied with, here is one such list that exists; look for lists like these.
Topics that you will have to cover when having a large gathering at …(these are typical aspects you should consider…)
- The application, must be received 14 days prior the event, and be signed by legal persons of the organisation, or body.
- We require your operational plan 7 days prior the event, plus your disaster management plan, a SWOT analysis and a list of all suppliers, their contact detail, a event program with times, and responsible persons. All the members of the JOC and LOC co-ordinators will attend a row call session prior the gates opening.
- Do not exceed the grounds capacity, we require a terrain layout plan, plus deployment plan – where will you park what, and erect what?
- No go and restricted areas, areas that you would like to have sealed off.
- Illumination (lights) after 5 pm? – is it in place, we require lights after five, and if not how will you go about getting it in place.
- Piro –techniques – (Fireworks) will you be using any?
- Accreditation of attendees –how will this be done and what form will it take.
- Noise control – live bands, and PA systems, must be tested – no live events after 12;00 pm.
- Backup power generators, will be required, should the power fail – battery backups for PC’s.
- Catering – hot/cold foods preparation – will require health certification –copies of health certificates and registration with relevant authority, no informal catering, and one fire extinguisher per caterer or food stall.
- Parking arrangements for / VIP’s, and staff / vendors. Parking guards to facilitate proper parking layout, in rows.
- Liquor act – do you comply?
- Carry inns’ – what will be authorized and what wont?
- Medical tents and staff requirements, – for every 4000 – you need one ambulance manned by one AEA and one BAC (not first aid), and one paramedic (ALS or CCA) for every 0- 6000, must be able to supply their HPCSA numbers, + first aiders, and allergenic medicines, and anti histamine + ice and liquids to be available in the medical room, if it is a sports event we require two ambulances, and minimum two physiotherapists.
- Structures, stages, branding, banners – will require structural certificates / engineers certificates
- Ingress and egress control of vehicles, how will this be done from the main road – VIP requires
- Public transport arrangements / parking for busses and taxis as well as drop off, and pick up points, as well as a responsible person on each bus, and taxi, with a roster of people on that vehicle.
- Public toilets additional – ratio is one toilet for every 250 people, plus cleaners. Continued cleaning during event, as well as toilet paper must be supplied.
- Security Guards / car guards/ marshals – who will be appointed, and how will they be recognised, distributed– you will need a minimum of 24 qualified guards, registered with the security board.
- Fire prevention, your evacuation plan, fire extinguishers at all gas/ fire braais – only 5kg (18kg) gas per stand for certification by fire department, décor –fire retardant materials, candles, liquid paraffin food heaters. , plus fire extinguishers for the parking areas
- Ticket sales? – coinage, security of cash– at vendors, gate– how will the cash be protected, and transported
- Gas collection point for additional gas/ for certification by fire department
- Bad weather/ what then scenario’s – for big events shelter will have to be erected against the sun and rain
- Access control in/out of VIP section – what is the criterion.
- Additional communication systems, public address system, and hand radios– do you have your own.
- Additional Signage – will you be erecting any?
- Power points and water points, who will be setting them up, we require electrical certification.
- Terrain survey, potential risks, and or hazards – what have you found and identified?
- Staging area – a specific area for medical vehicles and police, with enough open access to the field and venue and the service gates. Helicopter landing zone – a dedicated spot for helicopter landings
- VIP parking, and entrances / exits – will anyone be treated as a VIP, and who are they?
- Protection barrier from stage / tent / structure, how will you safeguard any structure?
- Handicap parking / drop off and pick up point – facilitation – who will assist, and where will they be.
- Public liability insurance, considerations, – do you have, and how much?
- Identification of children – everyone must carry id tags, with name, surname, school, and medical aid details, plus parents contact detail and allergies, chronic medicine, etc.
- Deliveries to the event/ before or during? – What can we expect and at which gate.
- What time will the stage / tents / structures be in place? Rigged up and broken down = event programme for logistics
- We require an Evacuation plan, and dedicated assigned co-ordinators with loudhailers to perform such function with.
- Communication grid, flow diagram of responsible people, and contractors (copy to METRO POLICE), caterers, etc. and their contact numbers call signs – (via short wave hand radios, minimum 15 radios with chargers and extra batteries
- Protocol announcements of emergency and disaster evacuation plan, at opening of event.
- Event manager, and or his deputy will be in the JOC at all times, they will keep the record of all events as they transpire and are remedied, they will be at the JOC when it opens and need to stay behind until last person leaves the stadium.
- Service suppliers and technical assistance list of suppliers phone numbers.
- Cash payments of service providers and staff, where, when and how – what is your security arrangements?
- JOC /specific site location / equipment required / radio’s, telephone, fax and email – an area where you co-ordinate all aspects of the event from – keep log of events as they happen, must be manned from start to finish by senior representatives and the convener or his deputy. The head convener must be available to the JOC on short notice, and must remain on terrain at all times, no one in the JOC or VOC/ LOC (local organising committee) may consume any alcohol, and must have their own transportation.
- People climbing on the structures, precautions need to be put in place to stop this
- Position with vendors, and how they will be regulated.
- Payment for POLICE AND METRO POLICE officer will be charged at $00 per hour per officer
Now you can start
The Disaster Management planning process rolls out in phases; the first phase: Define the physical attributes of the venue/ s, and legal criteria involved. As well as costs and contracts that might be applicable, and lastly insurance and responsibility for service delivery…
As qualifying questions, never assume anything about anything…
I.E additional charges might apply for high mast lights at stadiums, no vehicles on the field, soccer pitch for instance, lead times, before and after the date, some charge for, or don’t give any lead time, to setup or break down…
Make sure the venue does not cater for parallel events, two event on the same premises on the same date and time, using all of the same resources; parking areas, kitchens, lifts, toilets, electricity, water, etc…
When you have made sure that you are comfortable with all aspects, and the t the venue contemplated will be fit, and then jump to it.
Step one; The initial key criteria areas, needs to be identified first, before coming up with any action item list or moving on towards compiling an Emergency & Disaster Management Plan (EDMP).
Things like; the organizer, promoters, contractors, and government role-players and everyone involved in the staging or organizing of any event are required by law to comply with the National Occupational Health and Safety Act.
These stipulations should then first be researched, to make sure you have enough money available to host a huge, large or small event, scale and magnitude have impact on everything, and implications on events, the bigger the more legal compliance, and the tighter and stricter the criteria will be applied. Your systems need to be put in place. So bigger is not always better… Start with the local town council to find out what they require. Especially in terms of health, safety, fire, and their codes, by-laws, and security requirements, as well as certification etc, by having a role-player meeting.
At this meeting we start by selling the Concept; its Attributes, its supportingPerception and Systems = CAPS
We need to do a thorough CAPS assessment of the venue/s: A CAPS assessment signals all the ingredients of any strategy, any SOP is a strategy; CAPS refers to the basic principles that should be incorporated into any event strategy, and that of any strategic plan; to make it comprehendible.
DRAFTING THE SOP with the help of PRINCIPALS.
CAPS: Concepts, Attributes, Perceptions,and Systems.
Your initial recognisance should cover the following aspects: as questions for clarity on;
- The capacity and suitability of venue for the envisaged project
- Will it comply, or fall within the ambit of all the relevant acts -, and all its stipulations, requirements and criteria.
- Venue history;
- Venue fires,
- Venue structural failure,
- Venue problems with traffic etc.
- Security & Crime tendencies – special requirements, risk assessments, assessment of the immediate surrounding area, dams, rivers, reservoirs, electrical instillations, sewerage farms, Slaughterhouse
- Secure and designed vs. temporary parking etc…
- Is their any Disaster Management Plan, in place or not?
- Health act and related issues, do they comply?
- Fire prevention and related issues
- The communication grid and radio’s, telecommunication, It networks… will they function, Civil Aviation act restrictions, and or interference
- The requirements for a JOC, VOC, does the venue have a facility suitable.
- Traffic impact analysis and parking flow management survey.
- Identifying – additional – Emergency exits
- Identifying “Staging areas” – for emergency personnel, vehicles and landing zones
- Contingencies, in place, review of all evacuation protocols
- Medical staff, Doctors and Paramedics requirements
- Terrain layout plans, building plans, water and sewage lines, electrical installations, capacity and potential hazards. Gas power kitchens and other potential dangers.
- Service, repair and maintenance issues at the venue make sure they sign such a service level agreement; – Things that work perfectly well now could be totally broken tomorrow, whose responsibility will it be to repair it to its original condition… before your event? Escalators, lifts, lights, toilets, etc…They are all prone to break. Then the cutting of grass, and pruning of trees, cleaning etc…as well evacuation clause; this clause stipulate e the time that you may enter the venue, and every one, and thing will be out of your way. No night before party tables, and chars, and tents, and litter etc…
- Does the available infrastructure cater for enough; of what you will need, and how much will additional cost, and will it be available; toilets, parking, seating, kitchens, water etc.
Step two; The Disaster Management planning second phase deals with the: Defining of perceptions about the perceived “safety” and other factors of the venue, and then identifying of all possible threats by means of physically doing a threat assessment on foot.
The limitations of human nature to improve chances of making good strategic decisions will only appear significant if it is recognised as a continued process of predicting, and adaptation, then the anticipating of possible and even remotely possible aspects, and elements as well as attributes that could, and have lead to disasters. All and any elements and attributes in any disaster, was always preceded by some events that served as markers, and warnings to indicate such catastrophe. Only when we are vigilant, and informed, do we think of ways to preventive tragedy in our strategic mindset, only then do we avert such happenings.
By performing of an impact analysis; asking what will have the most impact on this event, venue and people commencing to this event? These aspects come to the surface when we start considering all of the potential types of disaster, and then gauging the probability, and which ones are more prevalent than others, at these types of events and venues. All specifics make for accurate assumptions. Traffic impact studies, routes, flow diagrams, alternative routes, choke points, and parking. This is always a good place to start. Start from the outside in, as you see the place for the first time, make note, about signage, obstructions, road works, hazards, etc… These will then include the drawing up of venue, and event specific Disaster Recovery Plans, that will be outsourced to all relevant role players, to incorporate within their mandates to come up with a contingency or plan for:
- Natural Disasters (Sink hole, Fire, Flood, Storms)
- Terrorist Acts (Biological threats, arson, –Anthrax etc.)
- Power Disruptions, Power Failure only at the venue
- Labour Strife (Walkouts, Shutdowns)
- Structural Failures and inspections
- Crowd control and management
- Power failures; of magnitude – the water, cell phone, and traffic lights, and electronic devices won’t work, including air-conditioning, lights, telephones, freezers, kitchens, all things essential to the event. This could be happening a few days before, the event, and then suppliers would not be able to render services or product – look into these aspects if they are mission critical.
- Road works
- Public transportation
- Private – car rental, etc
- Fires in the parking areas (Braai).
Having determined the most prevalent potential disasters, or assessed any aspects that could impact negatively on the event, then start putting in place some mitigating steps, and plan for their contingencies, accordingly. We then arrange them from most probable to least, in line with the nature of the event and the impact of each disaster or threat on such an event, and the magnitude of the resulting disruptions. This critical activity will determine which scenarios are most likely to occur and what recovery processes are most needed, and which least.
Drafting a Disaster management Plan and looking at its Contents;
The key components of the disaster plan should include:
- Both a Threat Analysis (mainly things human in origin; strikes, terrorism etc) – and then a SWOT analysis (looking at infrastructure and terrain defects).
- Risk Assessment; will look at bottle necks, capacity, seating, traffic flow, exists, entrance etc,
- Mitigation Steps (disaster prevention and damage reduction) will cover all these aforementioned aspects…through a mitigation and the also a recovery plan.
- Response and Recovery Plans; specific and then point to the leading agency with roles and responsibilities spelled out…
- Damage Assessment Process; intelligence gathering, you cannot mange what you cannot measure.
- Salvage Procedures, pre- post disaster.
- Rehabilitation Plans and contingencies.
Disaster Recovery Plan
A typical disaster plan would also include the following elements:
- Emergency Sheet: a simple summary of steps to be taken and the individuals to be contacted in the event of any such incident, or any emergency.
- Table of Contents: should be generated based on headings.
- Introduction to the plan: its purpose, process, and organization
- Structure of the JOC and VOC: including their individual roles, functions and responsibilities, of each of the team members.
- Departmental Responsibilities: addresses the responsibilities of various departments such as Health, Fire, Disaster management, and the POLICE. As well as who will be taking the leading role, in these instances,
- Pre-disaster Actions: An outline of procedures to be followed in advance of any emergency for which there is advance warning; (e.g., hurricane, flooding, thunderstorms), including assignment of responsibilities for those actions.
- Specific Response and Recovery Plans: These plans provide, at the functional level, the steps to be taken to maintain services and to recover to a normal operations state. These plans summarize the procedures to be followed in the planed scenarios as well as other emergency incidents, and how immediate action drills become active when this happens, or that goes wrong…. when a candle falls over at a table, take the ice bucket an use that water to douse the fire…NOT THE FIRE EXTINGUASHER…have that handy.
Have Appendix – cross references to all you plans, the plan generally include notification lists and other items that must be routinely updated. Some examples are:
- Notification Lists: names and numbers of employees and vendors that will need to be contacted, including office and home numbers, and next of kin.
- Recovery team members: list of recovery/salvage team members (including work and home phone numbers), with description of their responsibilities, scope of authority, and reporting lines.
- Detailed building plans: may be incorporated by reference.
- Resource lists: locations and inventory of emergency supplies, sources of commercial supplies/equipment/ that may be purchased on short notice, like blankets, food, and clothes, names of consultants and other specialists – electricians, Pc and It specialists, sources of auxiliary/volunteer personnel, etc.
- Stuff you will never know you need until it’s the only thing you need to …
Disaster preparedness means exactly what it says; being prepared for anything. Good planning and preparedness activities can significantly reduce the impact of a disaster, and also assist with basic emergencies and may prevent operational failure. While a disaster plan is a key component of preparedness, it is not enough to protect you. You must take all of the steps necessary to mitigate and to prepare for disasters. This includes incorporating the necessary emergency equipment and services. Your disaster recovery plan must be integrated with your overall event management plan to keep continuity. Have dry runs to check and test drills and exercises that test your plans where possible, your people, and your equipment need to be tested – if and when/where possible- this has become a luxury, no one can afford to do this…budget in the event that it becomes a major concern.
Contingency Planning Outline
Contingency plans i.e. Bomb evacuation drill, Fire evacuation drill… This should be developed for every critical process or function. You should first review all alternatives and identify the best plan or alternative process for your situation. These plans will vary with each system, process, and intended purpose. This generic outline will help you visualize what a contingency plan should include and can serve as an outline for almost any process. Contingency plans can range from very simple one-page documents to very complex; design each plan based on your organizational needs.
Introduction to some more terminology
Emergency management is defined as “a process to reduce loss of life and property and to protect assets from all types of hazards through a comprehensive, risk-based, emergency management program
Terminology: What’s an Emergency?
An emergency is any unplanned event that can cause deaths or significant injuries; or that can shut down your venue, disrupts operations, cause physical or environmental damage, or threaten the reputation or revenue. These generally include:
2. Freeway incident / accident
3. Flood or flash flood
6. Thunder storm
8. Communications failure, electrical failure
9. Radiological, Chemical or Aircraft accident
10. Civil disturbance
11. Loss of key supplier or customer
13. Biological agent release (bio terrorism)
What is a Disaster?
A “disaster” is a large-scale emergency although even a small emergency left unmanaged may turn into a disaster.
Emergency Management Steps
Any emergency management initiative must start with an inventory of risks and an assessment of the exposure form these risks. Infrastructure issues will likely be seen as the ones that present the most risk. The key steps in emergency management are:
Mitigation is defined as “sustained action that reduces or eliminates long-term risk to people and property from natural hazards and their effects.” Mitigation is the ongoing effort to lessen the impact disasters may have on people and property. Mitigation involves such activities as avoiding construction in high-risk areas such as floodplains, engineering buildings to withstand wind and earthquakes, and more.
Preparedness is simply preparing for an emergency before it occurs. Obviously, it is important to not just plan, but to prepare as well. The key to effective emergency management is being ready to provide a rapid emergency response. Being ready includes training and exercises as well as logistics. Government agencies at all levels have an obligation to prepare themselves and the public for emergencies. Community groups, service providers, businesses, civic and volunteer groups, are all partners in this effort. Everyone needs to be prepared
Response includes the action of responding to an emergency. Trained and equipped personnel will be required to deal with any emergency situation.
Recovery is the process of returning to normal. Salvage, resumption of business processes, and repair are typical recovery tasks.
Incident Command System
The Incident Command System (ICS) provides a management structure and system for conducting on-site operations. It is applicable to small-scale operational activities as well as major mobilizations. ICS, provides command centre and operational staff with a standardized operational structure and common terminology. We just need to know that they can be activated via our local authority’s Fire Brigade/Department.
Step three; The Disaster Management planning third phase: Define the best concepts, and develop them to suite your event.
1) Does the JOC representatives have the required Mandate –
- Responsibility level & Accountability i.e. legislation
- Service delivery in terms of MOU’s (perception)
2) Delegation of tasks i.e. – Identify – Clarify – Quantify – Solution
3) Drawing up a “Standard operating procedures” SOP – Generic and specific to the event and the role players.
1) Standard procedures of interaction
2) In the event, of a catastrophe, anomalies of nature or events that will cause chaos or civil unrest which role player out rank each other in terms of decision making power.
3) The focus is on role and function designation, to reduce the reaction time and create efficiency with synergised sets of instructions that has an interface point, and dead line.
4) Each category or event complimenting each other.
- To streamline integrated value chain activities, parallel with key performance objectives, and critical path allowing overall initiative and matrix quality management and performance
4) Establishing Command and Control structures; supported by a proper communications grid and communication structures by;
- Defining every persons, role, function and control span
- Defining conflict resolution mechanism
- Developing a checks, sign-off and quality system, From– start to finish
- Implementing micromanagement, co-ordinated phased implementation of objectives. (Assimilation, sort, dissect, assemble, produce, perform)
- Critical assessment of, each role-players ability to perform to expectation – SWOT analysis – Draft a critical control report to change the situation – empowerment & capacitating.
- Designing systems, for delegation and feedback structures and format of report, plus mechanism and infrastructure- IT, Tellcom, requirements, logistics, support and backups
- Assigning team Champions to inform JOC teams, of logistics, budgets, venue, and infrastructure
- Establishing the core command group/ and sub-work groups
5) Meet with stakeholders and evaluate Key performance area’s, and assign co-ordinators to review Security & Accreditation pertaining to:
- Accommodation requirements
- Accreditation / facilitation (handicap peoples) requirements
- Transport & Logistics requirements
- Health, Medical & Disaster management requirements
- Human Resources / Volunteers & Role players requirements
- Protocol / Media liaison / IT / Telecom / Hospitality – r
- Projects requirements/ 205 / fire – / health / structural / certificates, meetings and inspections
- Safety and Security assessment & compliance requirements
- VIP protection requirements
- Venue / Sites & Facilities / Catering / engineering requirements
- Finance, MOU’s , permits, legislative & contractual requirements
- Emergency and disaster contingency document (encompassing)
- m. Setting up guidelines for the adjudication room
Step Four; The Disaster Management Planning Final phase: Define the best systems to cope with every eventuality.
- Compiling the Disaster Management Planat JOC level;
- Tenders and procurement committee
- Strategic planning committee
- Safety and security committee
- Events management committee
- Project committee
- Steering committee election at VOC level;
a. Operations committee
- Logistics committee
- Administration and finance committee
- Compilation of disaster management plan;
- Send out for review and input
- Second draft
- Finalisation – compliance assessment meeting – sign off
- Setting up of JOC ( joint organisation committee) and VOC (venue organisation committee) and electing committee;
- Set the agenda –Agenda;
i. Identify – Who, What, Where, When and How, as well as How Much
ii. Clarify – Risk, Threat, SWOT, and GAP(Geographical Attributes and Perception)
iii. Quantify – cost, time, and risk
- Finalise assessment; consolidate
- Walk about; physical inspection by key role players some time before the event
- Then a Dry run; implementation; first a paper excise, then dry run, just the heads/ leaders doing a scenario drill…
- Then sign off
- Going live; in stages and intervals – Here all you will have is; Observation, Orientation, Decision and Act (OODA)
- And your – Contingency planning
- Logistics – suggested infrastructure requirements for a fully operational JOC at a major event
General contingency measures that large events will put in place…
1. Adequate access control including security fencing
2. Independent power and water supply sufficient for 5 consecutive working days
Requirements for Communications centre
- Separate Lines
- Voice Logging
- Computer/ laptops connected to a network and the internet, with Printer combo
- Internet and E mail Facilities
- Radios as required
- PA System
- Facsimile facility
- UPS facility
Disaster operations centre – JOC
- U shaped configuration with desks to accommodate approximately 30 persons
- Comfortable high back swivel chairs
- Mapping facilities
- Ample space for charts, whiteboards to view etc.
- Computers and printer/s
- GIS Software
- MS Office Software
- Software for an Information System/Resource Base ?Access
- Internet and e mail access
- Data Projector
- List of office equipment requirements e.g. clipboards, in and out trays, note blocks etc.
- Air Conditioning
- Recording facilities/PA System
- TV Monitor
- Commercial Radio facility
- Video facilities
- Telephone connections for each desk
- UPS facility
- Water cooler
- Coffee machine
Conference/training centre / VOC
- Cinema Style with desks
- PA/Recording facilities
- Overhead projection facility
- Video facility
- Whiteboards and flipcharts
Information centre/media room
- PA Facilities
- Cinema Style seating for approximately 12 persons
- Small area for visitors
- Adequate accommodation for all Disaster Management Personnel
- Adequate facilities which include showers
- Fully equipped kitchen including adequate crockery, cutlery, urns, stove, microwave, fridge etc to cater for personnel
Rest room facility
- Lounge area with Radio and Television
- Sleeping Accommodation – suggest 6 beds
The flow diagram up in each committee roomPre-disaster risk reduction phasePost-disaster recovery phase PreparednessDisaster ImpactMitigationResponse PreventionRecoveryDevelopmentDevelopment
Flow diagram of processes in compiling a Disaster Management Plan
You get security and then you get SECURITY;
Apples with apples people; security covers a huge spectrum of specialists, and each to his own.
We need specifics; People especially trained to perform specific tasks
- 1. Do event management and security,
- a. Crowd control,
- b. VIP protection
- c. Car guards
- d. Fire marshals
- e. Handicap marshals
- f. CCTV- Closed circuit television monitoring
- 2. Police
- a. Metro Police- traffic flow, parking
- b. K9 – dog units – explosives and narcotics
- c. Equestrian
- d. Air wing
- e. Water wing
- f. Crime combating
- g. Social crime prevention
Then other considerations are;
All employees must be registered with the Workman’s Compensation Commissioner, and Unemployment Insurance Fund.
Make sure that the Security Company and their training facility/ agency is accredited by the Security Officers Board. – SOB.
Description of Level of Competency; get certificates for what you are paying;
Grade E Security Official: for instance can only perform basic functions;
Security Officer Grade “E” means a security officer who may perform any one or more of the following duties:
Guarding, protecting or patrolling premises with goods;
Handling or controlling dogs in the performance of any or all of his duties.
Grade D Security Official:
Security Officer Grade “D” means a security officer who may perform any one or more of the following duties:
Controlling or reporting on the movement of persons or vehicles through
checkpoints or gates;
Searching persons and, if necessary, restraining them;
Managing or controlling security officers Grade “E”;
Searching of goods and vehicles
Grade C Security Official:
Security Officer Grade “C” means a security officer who performs any one or more of the following duties:
Managing or controlling Security Officers Grade “D” or “E”,
Driving a motor vehicle in the course of managing or controlling Security Officers
Grade “D” or “E”,
Driving a motor vehicle for the purpose of transporting Security Officers.
Grade B Security Official:
Security Officer Grade “B” means a security officer who performs any one or more of the following duties, i.e. managing, controlling, instructing or training security officers, grades E, D or C, or general workers and reporting thereon to any specific person, and who may:
Drive a motor vehicle in the performance of any or all of his duties;
Be called upon to perform any or all of the duties of a security officer
Grade A Security Official:
Security Officer Grade “A” means a security officer who performs any one or more of the following duties:
Advising or reporting on any matter affecting guarding or protection services;
Assisting in the screening of candidates for employment;
Assuming responsibility for security officer training;
Drawing money or cheques or taking possession of negotiable documents;
Drawing of money at banks or similar institutions;
Guarding or protection of goods;
Management of junior security officers;
Drive a motor vehicle in the performance of any or all of his duties
The services rendered are subject to a memorandum of agreement / understanding, take note that not all training institutions are NQF. Registered, and conform to SETA standards. Thus there are discrepancies within the security fraternity pertaining to equal service rendering standards and training.
By law, all security guards have to be registered with SIRA – the Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority – previously the Security Officers Board (SOB). SIRA ensures that security guards are fingerprinted and that they have no serious criminal convictions. Before being registered, guards have to be trained at an accredited training centre.
Limited powers available to security personnel;
Currently, security personnel have limited powers in terms of the arrest of suspects, and the search and seizure of property. The extent of execution of these powers will differ from company to company as they may become fertile ground for fraudulent or unauthorised activities.
Security officers that are granted ‘peace officer’ status; May arrest a person who commits or attempts to commit any offence in his presence. That is, a peace officer’s powers of arrest are not restricted to the more serious offences, or to the property which he is authorised to guard. Where as a normal Security officer will affect “a citizen’s arrest”, this can only be done for schedule 1, or otherwise known as serious crimes.
This is what a run up will look like with all these aspects applied.
The Disaster Management Planning Process background:
The appointed event manager will give a breakdown of all the aspects he or she addressed, to the security cluster (Emergency, disaster management, security and police forces), and based on the presentation, questions will be asked, and recommendations will be made. Here is a typical presentation outline;
Without prejudice, the appointed Event Disaster Manager looked at all the following criteria for the upcoming even at the Las Vega Show Grounds, the details were checked in terms of legal and legislative requirements before coming up with an action item list, the following legislation was incorporated.
- All relevant legislation and some specific legislation pertaining to;
- Act 205 of 1993 –The Gatherings act, and all its stipulations, requirements and criteria.
- Fire arm and munitions act
- Security arrangements – requirements, set up and plan
- The Disaster Management Plan – Disaster Management act.
- Health act and related issues
- Fire prevention and related issues
- The communication grid and radio’s
- The requirements of a JOC.
- Traffic and parking flow management
- Extra Emergency exits
- Staging areas – for emergency personnel, vehicles and landing zones
- Medical staff, Doctors and Paramedics
Terrain lay out
- Taking into account the design of a standardised strategy for the implementation of effective encompassing disaster management plan between event organiser and local government institutions, as well as POLICE
- Taking into account goal oriented implementation systems, SOP’s and immediate reaction drills, as well as evacuation plans, policies and procedures.
- Taking into account standardised planning and co ordination
- Taking into account all relevant legislation
- Taking into account all stakeholders roles, functions and responsibilities
- Focusing on the detailed analysis of attributes of the venue
- Taking into account to provide for eventualities
- Taking into account the weather
- By focus on goal oriented budgeting without compromising efficiency and effectiveness
Ø To identify key performance areas to meet legislative requirements
Ø To ensure goal oriented implementation plans in a systematic manner
Ø to link objectives, with strategy and relevant role players, to have a checks and balances criteria, to ensure that nothing gets overlooked, by formulating implementation plans with measurable outputs and time frames
to ensure goal oriented budgeting and management
In view of the transitory phase until after the elections which are scheduled to take in the current financial year, as well as numerous unpredictable factors, the development of capabilities to meet legislative requirements will be progressively phased in. A ranked approach will be applied according to priorities over a period of 3 years leading up to the event. Existing projects will, where applicable, be pursued.
The phases will be as follows:PHASE 1Run up to event2011-03-09PHASE 2Pre event2011-03-30PHASE 3Finalisation2011-?
KPA’s – assessments
PHASE ONE – Recognisance and familiarisation of venue, estimated time frame, identification of KPA’s (Key Performance Areas) & other specific mission specific security requirements
Estimated man hours/ outcome
SpecificsVenue quantification report/ floor space, toilets, kitchens, air-conditioning, ventilation, doors, fire doors, combustibles, lighting, sprinkler system, structure ext…
Compile data, Plus documents, and draw a site plan
Venue manger, site inspection, and interviews, regular checks, book venue, and where possible attend a full house venue prior to this eventFirst aid & ParamedicsMetro Disaster Management
Plus Documentation/ contracts
Consultation with METRO , Especially the Metro Disaster management component, or Fire Station.Immediate action drills for venue
Compile a IAD leaflet & SOP
Walk about with relevant role playersDrop off and pick points
Metro Police, 205 application requesting drop off/ pick up enforcement
Given a go ahead, check charges for services rendered vs. no pick up/ drop off pointMinimum standards and requirements
Minimum service & quality standards document to all service suppliers check credentials, and authenticity. As well as SARS, Criminal records, track record etc.
To have credible vendors, suppliers and services at venueAccess control evaluation, metal detector. Gun safes, registers, and procedures. SAP 13 trunk
Drug free, Alcohol & Gun free venue – what will be required?
Possible technical, specialist and mechanical assistance, blinds, tables and POLICECabling, wiring safe guards
Assuring that any additional electrical cabling to the stage is secure and protected
Electrical certificate, load testing, and insulation checksEvacuation areas
Demarcation of evacuation route, doors and area
Safe area, to converse on, with no hazards, and protection in the event of a Bomb threat, etc.Mobile auto tellers, security
Security and placement
Possibility of card theft and armed robberyPhysical additional barriers and cordon tape requirements
Get quotes on physical barriers
In the event that a parallel function is hosted on the same site on the dayInflux and exodus strategy
Devising a strategy to cope with a large amount of people conversing at the entrance, and during departure at the exits
Contact law Enforcement div Metro Police for points men, and possible road closureSecurity Patrol grids/ Mounted/foot/ K9 and stationary
Design a security grid, with patrols to co-ordinate 360 security
Incorporate possible mounted and K9 units from the POLICEBomb sweep of venue
Arrange with POLICE or METRO POLICE K9
To have a sterile site prior the concert, pyro-techniques must be declared, licence of pyro-technician checked and verified, POLICE Bomb squadFumigation
Rodent and infestation control
Contact a exterminatorContractors
Establish a roster system, arrange keys/access, security and parking for themGas bottle collection point, safety check, and accreditation
Fire inspector to test and approve
Fire DepartmentFire extinguishers, grass beaters and additional fire fighting equipment, to be distributed.
Safe guarding, the parking area, and vendor stalls, each stall to have a tested fire extinguisher minimum 5 kg
Vendor requirementsInner & outer Perimeter security check for possible – bridge
Set up of four level deep security cordons
Look at the grading of security officer necessary/required to perform specific functions within the security cordonsPrivate security companies duties
Set up a MOU with security contractors
Basic requirements, and all security guards to be on parade to be checked, verified and inspected two hours before the start of the concertVendors requirements
To be in and in place one hour prior
Vendors must be on site and in place, check prior venue dateOn site food preparation
Check Legislative criteria
ComplianceOff site Food preparation
Check Legislative criteria
ComplianceRoad works/ Construction& alternative routes/exits/entrances, diversion plan
Check with civil engineering department and serve with letter of intention to have an event
Ask for road markings, to be re-painted, signage to be upgraded, and storm water pipes, sidewalks and road surface to be cleanedMedia and Radio, emergency numbers local stations
Call radio stations, and email event intention, ask motorist to avoid routes, alternatively to announce gates still open for entrance to the venue for parking.
Use of mass media to announce intentions, hazards, and to help ease traffic congestion and avoid road rage and choke points.Additional signage
Check required building signage for indication of toilets, fire escapes, exits, no smoking …
Route identification, emergency identification etc.Parking attendants/security
Determine level of competency, uniform, and legal requirements
Liability, criminality, and uniformityMetro Police and POLICE function
Discussions, on role, function, service, manpower and staffing
Who, when, where, what, how?Medical centres & Hospitals bed estimates.
Determine, closest medical centre, hospitals, and beds available as well as service level
Get conformation of medical back up, from Provincial Disaster ManagementNo Go areas
Determine which areas will be no go areas, and enforce
Some areas leans itself to, criminality and should be made inaccessiblePOLICE public order policing function
Crowd management plan to be forth coming
To be incorporated in EDMPRestricted use areas
JOC, VOC, Toilets
To be enforced, no all sex toiletsVIP rooms/ change rooms artists
To be secured, with escape route
VIP protection or Bouncers?Vendor areas
Vendors to submit dimensions of stands, to draw up vendor floor plan, plus specific requirements water, power etc…
No overcrowding, queuing system to be implemented, drop safes, and carry boxes for cash, plus enough change. As well as transport of cash, max floats to be determinedChill tent location
Require a location to cool down patrons, and do observations, for overdosing, alcohol abuse, and drug use.
Venue next to medical room, paramedic must be on sight at all timesStaging areas emergency vehicles
One on site and off site area for the instant proliferation of emergency vehicles and personnel
To be implemented by EMSSanitation & cleansing
Constant cleaning of venue by cleaners, to pick up bottles, and any objects discarded, to minimise the risk of fires starting, and to keep toilets clean.
Requires a cleaning contractor, and additional dustbins, and sand buckets, as well as water buckets in the vicinity of dustbinsChoke points
Channel patrons away from choke points
Avoid stampeding, even at the stage, gates, exits and entrances, identify places where the fence can be cut, or windows can be pushed doubt etcDevelopment of security frame work
In conjunction with all law enforcement agencies, prepare a crime prevention strategy to curb all forms of crime, and the probability their off
Requires a lot of man power, possible CCTV surveillance of venueParallel events influence assessment
Check if any other event of magnitude will be hosted
If so prepareAccreditation criteria
As per national criteria for EMS
See list belowParking area evaluation / no parking, handicapped/ reserved/ special/ crew/ caterers and service entrances and VIP as well as tow trucks. Fire assessment.
Decrease, fire hazard potential, leave enough space for fire trucks to enter parking area, as well as tow trucks
Ask for grass to be cut, road markings to be painted, Metro Police tow truck on sight, and possible escort of VIP’sBuilding and Structural inspection
Civil engineer / structural/ and or fire ChiefHealth Inspection, Food, Kitchen and beverages
Health inspector reportFire fighting & prevention inspection.
Plus hydrants & extinguishers inspection
Consultation with Fire DepartmentInfrastructure / building plans/ floor plans
Do a walk about with department official, and inspect, manhole covers, sidewalks for missing stones, and trip hazardous
Get from council
Compile report on items that need replacement and or repair
Trees and overhead display boards, that require checking, cutting etc.Radio communication grid, IT- requirements, Power, Lighting and backups, additional power points, water., telecommunication
Consultation with service providers & property managerID Helicopter landing zone & requirements for demarcation
Obtain seven day, the daily weather forecast
Notify EMS, and disaster management of weatherID site for medical room
Ventilation/ near JOCContingency evaluation
Compile DocumentSecurity, risk and threats assessment
Compile DocumentID JOC/VOC sites plus requirements assessment
Two offices, preferable overlooking venue, or inside, on high groundTraffic & Parking requirement assessment
Consultation with Metro Police& Property ManagerEvacuation procedure & Management
Meeting with role players
- Command and Control
- Disaster eventuality assessment
- Responsibility and mandates
- Crowd Control and Management
Meeting with role players, elect JOC members, check mandates, and draft EDMP, Evacuation Plan, contingencies, and immediate action drills- EDMP final document
The Attributes of Emergency/Disaster Coordinator
Persons appointed to the Emergency/Disaster Coordinator position will have the following attributes:
ü Affirmed Leadership qualities and the ability to command authority;
ü Has Sound decision-making skills and is capable of remaining calm under pressure;
ü Generally be JOC bound but will move to asses any situation for himself first hand if the need arises
ü Has a track record of performing under pressure, physically and mentally capable of performing the required duties.
As well as possessing the general attributes to command any situation as above, the Emergency Coordinator should have sound knowledge of the layout of the building and have undergone appropriate training to perform the role.
The Communication Leader should be competent and qualified in the use of all communication equipment in the building, and have a track record of radio handling and procedures, with a suitable voice to provide clear directions.
Marshals & Wardens
Marshals & Wardens should be appointed to assist on the floor or areas of concern because of the requirement of act 205, which stipulates one Marshal for each twenty persons on the floor or in the area.
First Aid Leader
The First Aid Leader should be appointed, and should be as a paramedic or doctor because of their qualifications and their ability to perform the required duties they will take control of.
Deputies & Volunteers
To ensure continuity of the warden’s functions in terms of act 205, whilst wardens are absent, deputies should be standing in. Deputies should posses the personal attributes as above, be fully trained and prepared to take over the primary roles as required.
Core functions of the emergency coordinating and planning committee:
- Designing of the Emergency plan and submitting it to the client for approval;
- Implementation and updating of the emergency plan, in conjunction with all relevant role players;
- Drawing up of a simple emergency procedure leaflet for distribution to all personnel which will have a floor plan of the venue and indicate all emergency exits, as well as have the immediate action drills in for the specific venue ;
- Arranging the necessary training/ briefing of key personnel to cover specific functions;
- Appointing Team Leaders for the various functions to co-ordinate;
- Joint one on one planning and consultation with other external role players.
Principles and responsibilities:
It must be clearly understood that the primary role of all the members of the JOC is not to combat the emergency, but to ensure the safety of the occupants are ensured by following the emergency disaster plan and where necessary, ensure an effective evacuation. Each member of the JOC will have clearly defined responsibilities and duties.
The duties and responsibilities of the VOC personnel will differ from the JOC i.e. to provide basic sector co-ordination and guidelines only. A representative from the VOC’s will be included on the Joint operational Committee’s planning sessions to ensure continuity of process and input.
Proposed Certification criteria of JOC and VOC members COLOUR-CODED IDENTIFICATION
ü Emergency Disaster Coordinators and Deputy’s Brown
ü Communication & Media Blue
ü Fire Yellow
ü First Aid / Medical White
ü Traffic / POLICE/ Metro Police Orange
ü Security / Evacuation Marshals / Wardens Red
ü Caterers / Vendors Green
ü Maintenance (Electricity/Plumbing) Black
Amount of man hours required to compile the Emergency and Disaster Management Plan: 126
- Disaster Management
Chapter 1.2 (b) stipulates as follows:
Disaster Management is a continuous and integrated multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary process of planning and implementation of measures aimed at :
(a) Preventing or reducing the risk of disasters
(b) Mitigating the severity or consequences of disasters and
(c) Emergency Preparedness
(d) A rapid and effective response to disasters and
(e) Post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation.
- Environmental Health Act
- Local Government Municipal Structures act 1998, (Act 117 of 1998 –solid waste/waste
- The Police Act, Act 68 of 1995
- The Regulations of the Gatherings Act, Act 205 of 1993
- Arms and Ammunition Act, Act 69 of 1975
- The Fire Brigades Services Act of 1987, Act 99/1987.
- Compile a Disaster Management Plan for Special Events Section 53(2)(k) Act 57/2002
Implement risk reduction measures Section 47(1)(2) Act 57/2002
- Engineering Profession of South Africa Act, 1990 (Act 114 of 1990)
- Road Traffic Act 1996, Act 93/1993
- The National Road Traffic Act, Act 93 of 1999
- To have a dually qualified person to co-ordinate the measures contemplated under the definition of “disaster management” contemplated in Section 1 of the Disaster Management Act 2002, Act 57 of 2002 in general and with specific reference to special events
- Gatherings Act 1993 (Act 205/1993)
- Occupational Health and Safety Act, etc.
- Health Act 1977 (Act 63/1977);
- Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectant Act 1972 (Act 54/1972);
- Water Services Act 1997 (Act 108/1997)
- Standard food-handling By-laws (Administrative 1317/1972)
- Pursue the measures contemplated in Section 63 of the Disaster Management Act 2002, (Act 57/2002) re:- i.e.
- First aid assistance
- Evacuation procedures
- Emergency fire drills
- Crowd control measures
- Safety/security measures
- Communication links with the relevant municipal disaster management Centre and sufficient personnel to give effect to the execution of the disaster management plan
- Gatherings Act 1993 (Act 205/1993)
Legislative requirements: The following is a summary of the present process/routing of the events:
- All event organizers need to apply for approval under the Gatherings Act to host an event. (Minimum of 21 days prior to the event.)
- Local Authority, POLICE to evaluate planning of events, an events checklist, and contents/outlay of the disaster plan and file with, contact numbers of all relevant role players to be included in the checklist
- The responsibility for the presentation of major events lies with the Special Events Planning Committee & Organizer
- All event organizers are advised to liaise with and meet with the Disaster Management representative and all relevant role players and stakeholders.
- The appointed, Event’s manager must hand in contingency plans for approval within 14 days prior to event, for securitization, at the Regional Disaster Management Centre
- All relevant role-players need to compile an incident report of the event and attend the debriefing meetings
- All event files need to be listed in an event register and kept in a safe place at the Disaster Management Centre
The Bill on Safety Pursue the objectives of event Safety
- Safety measures: check list
- Medical measures: check list
- Security measures: check list
- Emergency/Essential measures: check list
- Event accreditation: check list
- Spectator Access Control: check list
- Vehicle Access Control: compliance
- Alcohol and Prohibited Substance Control: compliance
- Environmental Control: compliance
- Communication: compliance
- Observe compliance to any other act, By-laws and\or provisions which in particular and\or in general has pertinence to special events presented/hosted by and\or stadiums or venues of the metro.
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